Beer is one of the oldest drinks humans have produced. The first chemically confirmed barley beer dates back to at least the 5th millennium BC in Iran, and was recorded in the written history of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and spread throughout the world. Though, the ancient Chinese artifacts suggested that beer brewed with grapes, honey, hawthorns, and rice were produced as far back as 7, BC. As almost any cereal containing certain sugars can undergo spontaneous fermentation due to wild yeasts in the air, it is possible that beer-like drinks were independently developed throughout the world soon after a tribe or culture had domesticated cereal. Chemical tests of ancient pottery jars reveal that beer was produced as far back as about 7, years ago in what is today Iran. In Mesopotamia, the oldest evidence of beer is believed to be a 6,year-old Sumerian tablet depicting people consuming a drink through reed straws from a communal bowl.
Meta-Research: The growth of acronyms in the scientific literature
Ground-breaking scientific research will make it easier to predict the path of some of the world’s most powerful storms, enabling communities to better protect themselves from severe flooding. Mesoscale convective systems MCSs are ‘megastorms’ that affect large parts of the world, including Africa, Australia, Asia and the Americas, causing human and livestock deaths plus major damage to infrastructure. They can potentially:.
PNAS is published weekly in print, and daily online in PNAS Early Edition. PNAS was established by NAS in , with its first issue published in The NAS.
Print version. This interactive module is designed to promote an understanding of unconscious bias and how it can affect the peer review process. It will also provide strategies for mitigating bias during the review process. In this section, we will explore the difference between explicit bias and implicit or unconscious bias. When faced with situations or people, we use mental maps and patterns to classify them by making a number of automatic associations.
Not surprisingly, our perceptions and assumptions based on these automatic associations are not always correct. Because our unconscious biases tend to be ingrained, it takes some work to disrupt them, but it can be done through active reflection and practicing inclusive behaviours. Doing this work benefits us, the people around us and the peer review process; it also contributes to research excellence.
These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated.
Following early radiocarbon dating in the s, an alternative hypothesis arose of This article contains supporting information online at.
Some acronyms are useful and are widely understood, but many of the acronyms used in scientific papers hinder understanding and contribute to the increasing fragmentation of science. Here we report the results of an analysis of more than 24 million article titles and 18 million article abstracts published between and Acronym use has also increased over time, but the re-use of acronyms has declined.
We found that from more than one million unique acronyms in our data, just over 2, 0. Acronyms are not the biggest current problem in science communication, but reducing their use is a simple change that would help readers and potentially increase the value of science. As the number of scientific papers published every year continues to grow, individual papers are also becoming increasingly specialised and complex Delanty, ; Bornmann and Mutz, ; Doubleday and Connell, ; Cordero et al.
Writing scientific papers that are clearer to read could help to close this gap and increase the usefulness of scientific research Freeling et al.
CNN — Black newborn babies in the United States are more likely to survive childbirth if they are cared for by Black doctors, but three times more likely to die when looked after by White doctors, a study has found. Researchers from George Mason University analyzed data capturing 1. When cared for by White physicians, Black newborns were about three times more likely to die in the hospital than White newborns, the researchers found. And a report from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which covered the period between to and was published in June, found that Black infants still have more than twice the risk of dying as White infants.
the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS online ) Publication date: 28 January
Research articles over 4 weeks old will soon be available free at the PNAS web site, www. Both archives will date back to Added to more recent content from onward are almost 15, articles more than 70, pages from through , which were digitized through a joint venture with JSTOR. Mellon Foundation that is dedicated to helping the scholarly community take advantage of advances in information technologies. This extensive PNAS archive will be available online at www. Expanding the number of free back issues is PNAS’s third online initiative for These three innovations by PNAS will advance and broaden scientific dissemination.
As the official journal of the National Academy of Sciences, we strive to take a leadership role in scientific publishing.
Study: Black newborns 3 times more likely to die when looked after by White doctors
If you’re young and single, chances are you’re rejecting potential dates left and right on apps like Tinder, Bumble and OkCupid. It’s a brutal virtual world. Hundreds of people are whittled down to a few in minutes. In the seconds you lingered on one person’s profile, four pictures and an ambiguous job title, what made you swipe him or her to the right?
Michael J. Rosenfeld,,; Reuben J. Thomas, and; Sonia Hausen. aDepartment of Sociology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA ;.
Online Dating Study: Is PNAS Getting Cozy with eHarmony?
PNAS is an important scientific journal that printed its first issue in and continues to publish highly cited research reports, commentaries, reviews, perspectives, feature articles, profiles, letters to the editor, and actions of the Academy. Coverage in PNAS broadly spans the biological, physical, and social sciences.
Although most of the papers published in the journal are in the biomedical sciences, PNAS recruits papers and publishes special features in the physical and social sciences and in mathematics. The NAS itself had been founded in as a private institution, but chartered by the US Congress, with the goal to “investigate, examine, experiment, and report upon any subject of science or art.
For more than years, humans have mastered the art of refracting light by shaping glass into lenses, then bending or combining those lenses to amplify and clarify images either close-up and far-off. Researchers from Aarhus University challenge one of the cornerstones of biochemistry, the Michaelis-Menten equation.
Similar “content-based” recommendation systems may well have value in the domain of online dating. Of course, by implementing a speed.
The UniProt Knowledgebase UniProtKB provides the central database of protein sequences with accurate, consistent, rich sequence and functional annotation. The UniProt Knowledgebase consists of two sections: Swiss-Prot – a section containing manually-annotated records with information extracted from literature and curator-evaluated computational analysis, and TrEMBL – a section with computationally analyzed records that await full manual annotation.
Swiss-Prot is an annotated protein sequence database. The Swiss-Prot Protein Knowledgebase consists of sequence entries. Sequence entries are composed of different line types, each with their own format. In Swiss-Prot, as in many sequence databases, two classes of data can be distinguished: the core data and the annotation. We try to include as much annotation information as possible in Swiss-Prot.